Silver nanoparticles - Mechanisms of action (protein inactivation)

1. In moisture condition, the silver atom loses one electron forming silver ion (Ag+)
2. The silver ion penetrates the bacteria wall by transmembrane protein and reacts with the menbrane-bound enzymes.
3. The silver ion reacts with the enzymes by bonding to the thiol groups (-SH)
4. The bacteria cellular content is released from the cell wall because of the shrinking of the cytoplasm membrane.
5. Eventually, the silver ion gains an electron and becomes silver
6.  The process can start again